Cyclodextrins (CDs) have been widely used as a promising alternative in the formation of inclusion complexes with poorly soluble molecules. From this perspective, the present study aimed to study the inclusion complexes of diosmin in β-cyclodextrin, chemically quantify the diosmin-in-gel preparation and analyze the stability of the gels. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of therapeutic pulsed ultrasound (TPU) in association with the gel-diosmin complex on the parameters of muscle damage and oxidative stress in rats. Serum creatine kinase (CK) levels were used as an indicator of skeletal muscle injury. Lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were used as indicators of oxidative stress. The results obtained indicated that the inclusion complex obtained by co-evaporation had the highest complexation efficiency and stability; there was no change in the features of diosmin on incorporation into the Carbopol gel. Additionally, a significant (p <0.05) decrease was observed in CK levels (TPU plus gel-diosmin: 178.4 ± 85.3 U/L) relative to the untreated group (527.8 ± 46.1 U/L). Levels of TBARS were lower in the TPU plus gel-diosmin group (0.008 ± 0.0004 nmol malondialdehyde/mg protein, p <0.05) compared with the untreated group (0.081 ± 0.011 nmol malondialdehyde/mg protein, p <0.05, n = 6). Catalase activity did not statistically significantly differ between the treatment groups, and superoxide dismutase activity was lower in the diosmin-treated group (0.320 ± 0.11 U/mg protein) compared with the untreated group (0.983 ± 0.40 U/mg protein). These results suggest that TPU in association with the diosmin-gel complex is effective in reducing muscle damage and oxidative stress after mechanical trauma.
Diosmin; Inclusion complex; Muscle injury; Oxidative stress; Ultrasound; β-Cyclodextrin